(Shaman  shapeshifting to a Jaguar)

Sketch of pre-columbian stela. 

Adapted from Javier Urcid.

The Sorceror” 

Sketch of drawing by Henri Breuil depicting art found in Trés Frères cave in Southern France c. 13,000 BCE



The most important thing you need to know about shapeshifting is this: We’re all one. We’re one with every being and “thing” in the Universe. You already are any and every other being whose shape you could imagine shifting into. 

According to the great scholar of shamanism, Mircea Eliade, author of Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, shamanic cultures have long shared a mythology that in the beginning times, humans were able to fly and move freely between the upper, lower and middle worlds and communicate with spirits and deities who lived there. Then, they say, because of sin, our way was blocked. 

After that only shamans, turning themselves into birds, were able to fly. By taking on the form of birds and other animals, they could reestablish the situation that existed in those beginning mythical times when people could freely move among the gods and gain knowledge of the mysteries. The shamans could change themselves into animals to conduct the souls of the dead to the upper or  lower world, or could change themselves directly into a dead person to get them to the next world.

Humans have been fascinated with the idea of shapeshifting for a long, long time. It’s been the subject of myths and folk tales of cultures all over the world. There are stories ranging from sorcerers and gods changing people into animals as punishment, people changing their own forms to escape a pursuer, berserker soldiers changing into bears and wolves for strength in battle, people changing into  werewolves to express their savage urges, frogs changing into princes, and on and on. It’s as if we half-remember and feel nostalgia for that beginning time when everyone could shapeshift at will, navigate the nonordinary realms and commune with gods and spirits.

And of course, our fascination with shapeshifting may have to do with the fact that the body dies. We all have to face death at some point, and most would prefer it be a transformation into something else rather than a complete fade to black. As the Christian Bible says, “Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed.” (King James Bible).


Eliade attributes the shamans’ ability to transform themselves and fly to the fact that they are in a “‘spirit’ condition,” and says that although in the beginning times, shamans, like all humans, could physically transform themselves and fly, now they can do it only in “spirit” form. But this may be a deeper question than we think.

There are people who believe that shapeshifting is a real phenomenon in the physical world, that the shaman doesn’t only feel like his body is the body of the animal, but that his body actually becomes indistinguishable from an animal’s body, so that anyone else present would see him as the animal.

There’s a strong tradition of shapeshifting among the Shuar people of the Amazon Basin. Anthropologist and Author Michael Harner, who pioneered the return of shamanism to the West, studied and wrote about them. They have a legend of their “first shaman,” who still lives today underwater helping their shamans, with the power to transform himself into an anaconda.

Author John Perkins spent time with the Shuar people learning from their shamans, and wrote several books about shapeshifting. I met him at a New Age Fair in Denver and asked him if shamans really, physically turned into jaguars. He said yes, he had seen it himself. 

In fact, he wrote that he had seen Amazon hunters transform themselves into trees, becoming invisible and melting into the forest. He had watched Andean shamans disappear into cliffs and reappear seconds later a hundred feet below, and had sat across the fire from a Shuar elder who stood up, walked into the shadows, suddenly took on the form of a jaguar and bounded into the forest. 

Perkins’ shaman teacher told him shamans didn’t just take on the appearance of something else, they were it. They and it were the same. At first he thought they used trickery, maybe with the aid of hypnosis and ayahuasca, but later became convinced they really changed their physical bodies.

However in his later writings reporting a series of interviews with Shuar people, they speak of shapeshifting only in contexts of changing form at death, receiving the power of an animal, or changing their thinking, thereby changing reality. 

Perkins reported only two personal shapeshifting experiences: 

The old shaman had told him he would be able to shapeshift only if he could imagine doing it. Guided by the shaman, with a stone in his hand, he tried to imagine shapeshifting into a jaguar. The images wouldn’t come. So the shaman told him to imagine shapeshifting into a ball of energy. Then he was able to see a vision of a ball of energy. The shaman told him touch the ball with the stone and run it around the outside of the ball. When he did so and felt his oneness with the ball of energy, he was able to see himself inside the ball  — one with it. 

When he asked the shaman if his shapeshifting experience with the ball of energy was a vision capable of materializing or just a fantasy that could never become real, the shaman confirmed it was real. 

Perkins’ second experience involved a game of hide-and-seek with his 12-year-old daughter. He hid by sitting on a white stuffed chair and covered himself with a white bathrobe, focusing on merging his energy with the chair’s energy and thinking of the chair as “another aspect of myself.” His daughter looked right at the chair and didn’t see him — in fact she accused him of lying when he told her he’d been there the whole time.

However, according to Michael Harner, the Shuar consider their ayahuasca experiences to be more real than ordinary life. They even give their children ayahuasca so that they’ll know the “real” world. So it’s hard to say if we Westerners would agree about shapeshifting being “real.” 

Still, our concepts of what’s “real” are always changing as we learn more, so let’s keep an open mind.


If we’re skeptical about physically shapeshifting into another being, why would we even want to try? 

Whether or not shapeshifting is “real” in ordinary reality or only in nonordinary reality, it’s still a valuable technique. One of my teachers, Physicist, Shaman, and Author Claude Poncelet, explored shapeshifting in depth and taught methods for doing it. He died a few years ago and is greatly missed. In his book, The Shaman Within, he said, “Shapeshifting reinforces our awareness of the Oneness of the universe and the sacredness and interconnectedness of everything through direct, whole-body, whole-being experience.” 

He valued it as a personal spiritual path and a way of learning from other beings and healing ourselves, others, and the planet, “being of service to the world and our fellow human beings.” He says it awakens us to our divinity and  develops inner harmony, which helps us “build world harmony.

Shamanic teacher and healer Llyn Roberts, in her book, Shapeshifting into Higher Consciousness, also teaches a form of shapeshifting different from literally, physically, turning into an animal. She teaches that we don’t lose ourselves in the process of shapeshifting, but stay present and “expand into a larger sense of self.” We stay rooted in ourself and broaden our sense of self to include the being whose shape we’re taking on. That sounds pretty real to me.    

Besides, the whole idea is cool. What a power! Think how great it would be to shapeshift into a jaguar and scare off someone who broke into your house at night. Or not have to suffer pangs of conscience for eating bacon or having sex with whoever you wanted whenever you felt the urge. You could run with the wolves and wild horses and fly with the birds. Pure ecstasy!

Also, there’s value in “feeling” you’ve taken on another form, even if an outside observer doesn’t see it.

I don’t personally have experience of physically shapeshifting into another being. At this point, the practice is useful to me (and to other shamans I know) as a way to mobilize extreme empathy and compassion for use in shamanic healing.

When we shapeshift to an animal, the idea is to copy its body, and experience what it’s like to actually be that animal, with its nose and mouth and ears and eyes in a different place than ours, different limbs and organs in different places, senses that work differently, energy flows in its body different from ours, a brain that thinks differently and emotions that move us differently. We’re using our own energy flow, our own life force, but making it take on the energy flow patterns of the animal.

Shapeshifting is a powerful technique for healing. It’s basically an extreme form of empathy and the ultimate in compassion. We feel empathy when we know how another body feels by how it affects our own body. When we take on the shape of the other being we know how it feels in its own body. We know its likes and dislikes, the urges that move it, its sense of connection with other beings and with the One Consciousness, the Wholeness of the Universe, without the need for concepts or any filtering through a brain.

Healers make a distinction between empathy and compassion. Empathy is feeling another person’s suffering in our own body. Compassion is empathy plus the ability to understand what they’re going through and the desire to help alleviate their suffering. With only empathy — viscerally feeling the suffering someone else feels — we can quickly collapse into burnout. Empathy motivates us to want the suffering to stop and compassion allows us to step back and use our minds to figure out how to help and then take action to ease the suffering. When you see suffering and know what to do to help, and then do it, you’re not so likely to collapse and burn out.

I remember Michael Harner talking about indigenous shamans who take the illness of their patient into their own bodies and then cure it in themselves. The shaman might invite the patient come to live with him for a while, and even exchange clothing with the patient. Then the shaman would go out alone in the forest and heal the illness in himself. Shapeshifting into a suffering client is a powerful technique for healing.

Hawaiian Psychologist-Healer Dr. Hew Len, who had been trained in shamanism, was in charge of a hospital for the criminally insane and healed all the patients by just sitting in his office, reading their files, taking their illnesses into himself and curing their dysfunctions as if they were his own. He knew he couldn’t have even recognized their problems if he didn’t already have them in himself, so he took full responsibility for each patient’a condition and healed it in himself with love, acceptance, and self-forgiveness — until, within a few years, they all got better and left, and the hospital had to close for lack of patients.

Healing by shapeshifting into the patient is an extreme form of both empathy and compassion — a powerful way to heal. The shaman takes on the complete suffering and cognitive, emotional, spiritual and physical dysfunction of the client, sharing their fear, their hopelessness, and all their pain, but shamans can tolerate it because they’re confident that with the help of the spirits, they can heal it.


This brings up the question of whether shapeshifting is safe for the  beginner. A common fear people have when thinking about shapeshifting is of getting stuck as the being they shapeshift to. There’s a lot of folklore about deities or sorcerers turning humans into animals. In most of the stories they stay stuck in animal form. They can’t get back. In a Greek myth, the Goddess Athena punished a mortal woman who bested her in a weaving contest by turning her into a spider.  “She pointed her finger at Arachne and suddenly Arachne's nose and ears shrank up, her hair all fell out, her arms and legs got long and skinny, and her whole body shrank until she was just a little tiny spider.” She got stuck there forever.

Generally, in mythical tales of shapeshifting, when someone shapeshifts voluntarily into another being, they are able to shapeshift back to their human form. When we voluntarily shapeshift (rather than being transformed by a deity or sorcerer), that means we know how to do it and have control over it so that we can easily shapeshift back.

People are also reluctant to shapeshift because they don’t want to get stuck as something that can’t talk or think or do the things they like to do as humans. We have habitual patterns of tensions and energy flows in our bodies that we’re used to that make us feel like “me,” so we can be afraid of losing our identity if we take on a different shape. 

Another reason people are scared to get stuck in a shapeshifted form is that they consider other lifeforms and earthforms to be inferior. (A lifeform is a living organism. An earthform is what some people call an “inanimate object.” Earthforms include rocks, mountains, clouds, planets, stars, and man-made objects like cars and toasters. However, as shamans know there’s no such thing as an “inanimate object.” Everything is alive and has spirit.) 

But just think — even if we could get stuck in another form, it might not be so bad. We might find we’re not actually superior to other beings. We’re the same. Each part of the Universe is essential to its Wholeness. Think what it would be like if you got stuck in the form of a tree. It might even be a step up. If you’ve ever merged with a tree and felt its connections with the cosmos and nature all around, you know what I mean. A different life, but okay — maybe even better. We feel that, “Oh yes, I’m still here, I’m still having a conscious experience. It’s just different . . .  and interesting.”


The oneness we’re talking about isn’t only the kind of “oneness” when you’re a member of an organization — a church or a team or a country — where one part can leave and it doesn’t matter. Rather, Oneness is what Physicist David Bohm calls Wholeness, in which each part enfolds the Whole, like a hologram where every part contains the whole. Wholeness is complete. It would matter if one part left. 

Actually, it’s impossible by definition for one part to leave the Whole. It wouldn’t be whole anymore. Of course the Wholeness is always changing over time. Parts come and go, and take different forms, but the Whole stays complete. Nothing is ever left out because there is no “out.”

In the following exercise, you’ll have a chance to visualize yourself — all of you, body and soul — radiating an energetic field that goes out in all directions into the vast Universe. This is what is actually happening. Your energetic field may decrease as it goes out, but it never goes to zero. 

Ultimately the fields of all the other beings in the Universe merge to form a single structure that is the unbroken Whole. This means that not only does your field affect the other beings in the Universe, it is also affected by the radiations of the other beings in the Universe coming in on you from all directions. You are both sending to and receiving information and energy from the entire Universe. In each moment you affect  other beings and are affected and changed, even if only slightly, by every other being.


Lie down and get comfortable. Close your eyes, and tune in to how that feels. Visualize your energy body, your aura, radiating outward. Notice  there are no boundaries.

Continue visualizing and feeling your oneness with the Universe for about five minutes. Feel the energies radiating out equally in all directions and coming in on you equally from all directions. Encourage the feeling of being at the center of the Universe. 

Can you see how each of us, from our unique place in the Universe, no matter where we are, feels we’re the center of the Universe? Every other being, in every other place in the universe, including living organisms and so-called “inanimate objects,” has that same feeling of being in the center. And every being capable of self-awareness knows that feeling as “Me.”

As the old Shuar shaman taught John Perkins, we are all One. Each of us manifests or “unfolds” a unique energy pattern from the Wholeness of the Universe. At the same time the Universe has many other energy patterns enfolded within it, constantly unfolding to mingle with ours. We are connected with and have access to all of them through the Wholeness.


An important step in shapeshifting is to connect and merge your feeling of “me” with another being’s feeling of “me.” Even when you have maximally shapeshifted into the form of another being, you still feel like “me.” You have recognized the familiar feeling of “me” in them. It’s so familiar because it’s the exact same feeling as the feeling of “me” in yourself.

We can define that feeling of “me” as Awareness or Consciousness. I use the words interchangeably. It’s the feeling of being the seer, as distinguished from one who is seen. It’s actually more accurate to call it the “I.” That’s because it’s always the seer, the knower. It’s never an object that is seen or known. (A “me” is an object, something being seen or known. An “I” is the Consciousness itself.) So its more accurate to say you recognize the feeling of “I” in the other being as exactly the same as the feeling of “I” in yourself. Same I, same Awareness, same  Consciousness. You’ve tapped into the One Consciousness of the Universe.

The Universe is conscious and aware, and all awareness is ultimately Its awareness, whether it’s looking out through your eyes or mine or an animal’s, or sensing the cosmos with a tree’s senses or a rock's, or a toaster’s. That’s why we say everything is alive, everything has a spirit, everything has consciousness.

As we’re growing up and in young adulthood, we spend a lot of energy trying to define ourselves as separate beings — building our egos, which usually means rejecting lots of things as “not me.” (See Blog #1) But when we tap into the fundamental Universal Consciousness, the Consciousness that is always the seer, it makes us feel at the most basic level like “me” (or more accurately, “I).” It’s the exact same awareness (not a copy) that makes you feel like “yourself” and that makes me feel like “myself.” We share the awareness of the Universe. At this level there’s no separation between you and any other being.

This Awareness is the eternal basis of everything that exists and nothing can take It away. Not even death can destroy It. Here again, language doesn’t work because it’s actually inaccurate to call It “it,” or even to call It “Consciousness.” It’s not, and can never be, an object or a concept or any other thing you can name and turn over and examine in your mind. It’s simply the truth of existence. “I am that I am.” Existence is conscious. It’s this fundamental shared Consciousness that makes everything else possible. 

That’s why we say we’re all One.

That’s also why, when we shapeshift, taking on the physical form and energy patterns of another person who needs healing, we still feel like that  basic “I” we’ve always been.


Probably the most important thing a shaman can offer the world by becoming proficient at shapeshifting is healing. When someone not only steps into another person’s shoes to understand what they’re going through, but steps into their very shape, their ability to provide healing with the aid of their helping spirits is vastly improved. 

The shaman feels he has taken on the suffering person’s energy patterns, feels their pain in all the places where they hurt, feels the flows of energy that move through their body and gives rise to their emotions, feels the level of their vitality, even experiences their habitual thoughts. And, most importantly, feels the ailing person’s connection to the Wholeness of the Universe as identical to his own connection to the Wholeness. 

To be clear, when the shaman shapeshifts into another being for the purpose of healing them, taking on their physical form and energy patterns, the shaman is copying the patient’s physical body and energies, not stealing them. The patient still retains their own original body and energies. The shaman now feels the “me” of the patient as part of the “me” of himself, which has expanded to include the patient’s “me.” The patient may or may not be aware of the shaman’s “me.”

The shaman copies the patient’s energy patterns, including dysfunctional patterns and feels the pain of these dysfunctions, as  “me.” It becomes personal. The shaman is not “fixing” the patient from a superior position but instead is asking his helping spirits to take pity and heal the suffering. The compassionate helping spirits want to relieve suffering, and the shaman’s plea is all the more effective because of the patient’s suffering that he’s now feeling in himself. 

The shaman’s natural desire to defend himself against the suffering collapses as he realizes he can’t do this by himself. It’s this surrender that allows the grace and loving kindness of his helping spirits to flow into him and transform and heal the patient’s dysfunctional energy patterns in the shaman’s body.


The physical body, like every other material thing, is basically a collection of energy flows, waves of energy interacting with each other. Everything resonates, and similar things tend to synchronize with each other. As examples, pendulum clocks automatically synchronize with each other when placed in a room together, and some  fireflies blink on and off in synchrony, and many identical twins have a lifelong psychic connection. Scientists are showing that our complex consciousness arises through synchronizing resonant vibrations in our nervous system.

There is obviously a high degree of similarity between the energy patterns of the patient the shaman works with for healing and the shaman’s copy of the patient’s energy patterns. Thus, when a shaman works this way, his energy patterns and the patient’s tend to synchronize. The changes the shaman makes in his copy of the patient’s energies naturally resonate with the patient’s original energy patterns and change them. 

The patient’s dysfunctional patterns are unlikely to prevail over the shaman’s copy of their energy patterns after the healing because both parties naturally recognize the new healed patterns as more desirable and resist keeping the old patterns of pain and suffering.

Patients may consciously conform to the changes made in their energy patterns, or may pick them up unconsciously and become aware of them only when they notice they’re feeling better. Either way, the shaman’s work changes them. 


We’ve considered shapeshifting into animals and humans. What about plants and other lifeforms — insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses? What about so-called inanimate objects — “earthforms”? It’s possible to shapeshift into anything. Remember, as all shamans know, everything is alive and has a spirit.

You might find it strange to connect with a machine that has different parts. Does it have a separate spirit in each part? Probably, but it’s also probably capable of developing an overall spirit, just as each of our human organs has its own spirit and also participates in the spirit of our whole body. “Inanimate objects” often seem to be asleep, but are susceptible to awakening through contact with our focused intention. When we pay attention to them, they respond.

Have you ever had a bad day where everything went wrong and it seemed like even your household objects were against you. Your coffeepot didn’t turn on when you clicked the switch and after you finally got your coffee made, the cup slipped out of your hand and broke, splashing coffee all over. Your car wouldn’t start. You discovered a leak in your ceiling. Your bathtub wouldn’t drain. You tried to write but your computer kept skipping words and nothing made sense. You couldn’t even hit the wastebasket with your balled up first draft. Are these really the same good old domestic objects that served you so well in the past?

You might suspect their evil twins had replaced them overnight. Not too likely though. It’s probably your fault. You may have stopped giving them the respect and affection they were used to. Maybe you had something else on your mind — how to meet a challenge at work or get the last word in the argument with your spouse. You weren’t paying good attention to your faithful servants, the so-called “inanimate” objects.


Shapeshifting into a household appliance gets you more tuned in to the material world you live in. And it can be an ecstatic feeling to sense the aliveness and awareness of everything around you, harmonizing with your surroundings and feeling comfortable as a part of All That Is.

This is experimental. You may be surprised at what you learn. 

Pick a man-made earthform that you use all the time — an appliance, a kitchen machine, a toaster, a computer, electric haircutter — something you already appreciate. Find out as much as you could about it, how it was made, who made it and why? What substances is it made of, what are its moving parts, what is its day-to-day existence like? Be curious about its connections to the Cosmos and the Divine. Remember we’re all One in Consciousness.

Bring the object you picked to work with to mind, and preferably be in the same room with it. Put on a recording of shamanic drumming to alter your consciousness.

If you have a spirit helper, call it to come and help. Close your eyes and bring the object to mind. Imagine it vividly. Acknowledge its spirit by telling it you would like to copy its shape and asking for permission. Become alert to receive the answer. If you don’t detect an answer, ask your helping spirit if it’s okay.

Use your imagination. If you were that toaster (for example), what would it feel like. What does its metal skin feel like?  Strong and proud of how it shines? How do you feel when your heating elements turn red? Enlivened by the flow of electrons? Skilled and able and generous to turn bread into toast for humans? 

Stand up and let your body mimic the shape and movements of the toaster. Ask its spirit (its habitual energy patterns) to merge into your body and feel as they slowly seep in to your body and find ways to feel comfortable. Imagine your body changing shape internally and externally to accommodate the toaster’s presence.

What parts of your human body correspond with parts of the toaster? Can you feel in your skull the streamlined curve of its body? Can you feel in your legs the aliveness of the springs popping up the toast? Can you feel in your mouth and stomach the longing of its empty slots to be filled with bread?

Sense the energy flows in and around the toaster. Does any part of your body correspond with the electric cord plugged into the wall? Where do your corresponding energy flows begin and where do they flow? Is there a most active chakra in your body you can imagine corresponding to the toaster’s heating elements? 

Imagine your toaster coming to life and developing a sense of self like a cartoon character. Where in its body does it center its sense of “me”?

Imagine your sense of “me” expanding to become one with the toaster’s center of “me.”

Open your eyes and look at the physical toaster while retaining the feeling of the shared “me,” as though the physical toaster and your physical body were two separate branches emerging from the same spot on the tree trunk.

Enjoy the sense of connection for a while, and then thank the toaster and withdraw your attention from it.

Next time you’re having a bad day, take a break and shapeshift into another lifeform or earthform. It will help you get back in harmony with things.


Pick an animal you’d like to shapeshift into. Learn all about it. If you can’t observe it in person, look for YouTube videos that show it in its natural habitat. Ask its spirit if it’s okay to shapeshift into its form.

Imagine how it would feel to be that animal, to live in its habitat, to have its senses, duller or more sensitive than yours, or completely different from yours. Some animals have a magnetic sense of where the earth’s poles are. Some humans do, and others don’t, but we can all imagine what it might be like. What other new senses can you imagine sharing?

For more information, check out the References below, especially John Perkins’ Shapeshifting book, Claude Poncelet’s The Shaman Within, and Ellen Winner’s “How to Save the World One Species at a Time, Starting with the Bees.” And coming soon, Ellen Winner will be offering an online workshop on Shapeshifting. For more information email ewinner@worldshaman.org.



Bohm, D. and Hiley, B.J., The Undivided Universe, Routledge, 1993

Bohm, David, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1981

Eliade, Mircea, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, Princeton University Press, 1964

Fried, Lauren, “Do Twins Really Have Telepathy?,” Penn State Website, 2014, https://sites.psu.edu/siowfa14/2014/10/07/do-twins-really-have-telepathy/, accessed November 19, 2020

Guengerich, Galen, “You Are the Center of the Universe,” Psychology Today website, https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-search-meaning/201408/you-are-the-center-the-universe, accessed November 18, 2020

Harner, Michael J., The Jivaro: People of the Sacred Waterfall, University of California Press, 1972 (The Jivaro are now known as the Shuar people.)

Harner, Michael,  The Way of the Shaman, Tenth Anniversary Edition, Harper San Franciso, 1990

Hunt, Tam, and Jonathan W Schooler. “The Easy Part of the Hard Problem: A Resonance Theory of Consciousness.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, vol. 13 378. 31 Oct. 2019, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2019.00378; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6834646/ accessed November 18, 2020. (“[I]n many circumstances, things resonating in proximity will start resonating together . . . [W]e take panpsychism, the notion that all matter is associated with at least some degree of mind/subjectivity/consciousness, as our metaphysical starting point . . . .  [S]hared resonance leads micro-conscious entities to combine into macro-conscious entities.”)

King James Bible, 1 Corinthians 15:51

Len, Ihaleakala Hew and Vitale, Joe, Zero Limits, Wiley, 2008

Munster Williams Proctor Arts Institute website, “Myth: Arachne and Athena,” https://www.mwpai.org/assets/Education/MA-Resources-9-15-2016/Myth-Arachne-and-Athena.pdf, accessed November 18, 2020

Perkins, John, Shapeshifting: Techniques for Global and Personal Transformation, Destiny Books, 1997

Perkins, John and Chumpi, Mariano.\ Shakai Ijisam, Spirit of the Shuar, Destiny Books, 2001

Poncelet, Claude, The Shaman Within: A Physicist’s Guide to the Deeper Dimensions of Your Life, the Universe, and Everything, Sounds True, 2014

Roberts, Llynn and Perkins, John, Shapeshifting into Higher Consciousness: Heal and Transform Yourself and Our World with Ancient Shamanic and Modern Methods, Moon Books, 2011

Wikipedia, “Shapeshifting,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shapeshifting#Punitive_changes Wikipedia, “Shapeshifting,” https://en.wikipedia-on-ipfs.org/wiki/Shapeshifting.html, both accessed November 18, 2020

Winner, Ellen, “How to Save the World One Species at a Time Beginning with the Bees,” Journal of the Society for Shamanic Practice, February 7, 2017, https://shamanicpractice.org/article/how-to-save-the-world-with-shamanism-one-species-at-a-time-starting-with-the-bees/, accessed November 18, 2020

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